1

izindaba

Kuyini Ukuthungwa?

UKC BRUNING

I-Furfural ikhemikhali elenziwe ngezinto eziphilayo ezikhiqizwa izinhloso zezimboni. Ngokuyinhloko yakhiwe yimikhiqizo yezolimo efana namakhoba e-oat, i-bran, ama-corncob, ne-sawdust. Eminye imikhiqizo esetshenziswa kuyo ihlanganisa ukubulala ukhula, i-fungicide, ne-solvent. Kubuye kube yinto ejwayelekile ekukhiqizweni kwamafutha okuhamba kanye nasenqubweni yokucwenga uwoyela wokuthambisa. Ikhemikhali liyinto ekukhiqizeni amanye ama-ejenti ezimboni eziningana.

urfural ikhemikhali elenziwe ngezinto eziphilayo ezikhiqizwa izinhloso zezimboni.

Lapho ikhiqizwa ngobuningi, amakhemikhali enziwa ngokufaka i-pentosan polysaccharides ngenqubo ye-acid hydrolysis, okusho ukuthi i-cellulose kanye nesitaki sento eyisisekelo kuguqulwa kube ushukela kusetshenziswa i-asidi. Esitsheni esingena moya, ubucwebecwebe bungumbala, abunambala, futhi bunamafutha, futhi bunephunga elifana ne-alimondi. Ukuvezwa emoyeni kungafaka umbala ketshezi ngemithunzi kusuka kokuphuzi kuye koku nsundu.

I-Furfural iyancibilika emanzini futhi incibilika ngokuphelele ku-ether ne-ethanol. Ngaphezu kokusetshenziswa kwayo njengekhemikhali eyedwa, isetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwamakhemikhali afana ne- u-furan, i-furfuyl, i-nitrofurans, ne-methylfuran. Lawa makhemikhali asetshenziswa nasekwakhiweni okuqhubekayo kwemikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi amakhemikhali ezolimo, ezemithi, kanye neziqinisi.

Kunezindlela eziningana lapho abantu behlangana khona ne-furfural. Ngaphezu kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali ngesikhathi sokucutshungulwa, kungatholakala ngokwemvelo ezinhlotsheni eziningana zokudla. Ukuvezwa kokukhanya kwalolu hlobo akuboniswanga ukuthi kuyingozi.

Ukuvezwa kakhulu koboya obungemuva kungaba yingozi. Ekuhlolweni kwelabhorethri kubantu nasezilwaneni, kutholakale ukuthi i-furfural iyacasula isikhumba, ulwelwesi lwamafinyila namehlo. Kubikwa futhi ukuthi kudale ukungakhululeki komphimbo nomgudu wokuphefumula. Abanye babike imiphumela yesikhashana esifushane yokuchayeka kumakhemikhali ezindaweni ezingena umoya omncane kubandakanya ubunzima bokuphefumula, ulimi olunamazinyo, nokungakwazi ukunambitha. Imiphumela yesikhathi eside engaba khona yalolu hlobo lokuchayeka ingahle isuke ezimeni zesikhumba njenge eczema kanye ne-photosensitization ezinkingeni zombono kanye ne-edema yamaphaphu.

I-Furfural yaqala ukusetshenziswa kabanzi ngo-1922 lapho iQuaker Oats Company iqala ukuyikhiqiza ngezikebhe ze-oat. Ama-oats aqhubeka nokuba enye yezindlela ezaziwa kakhulu zokwenza ikhemikhali. Ngaphambi kwaleso sikhathi, yayisetshenziswa kuphela kwezinye izinhlobo zamakha. Yaqala ukwakhiwa ngonyaka we-1832 nguJohann Wolfgang Döbereiner, usokhemisi waseJalimane owayesebenzisa izidumbu zezintuthwane ukwenza i-formic acid, okwakungowomkhiqizo okhiqizwayo. Izintuthwane kukholakala ukuthi beziphumelele ekwakheni leli khemikhali ngoba imizimba yazo ibiqukethe uhlobo lwezinto zezitshalo ezisetshenziselwa ukucubungula.


Isikhathi Iposi: Aug-13-2020